The Russian Stove is an amazing creation. It is made of very simple materials and its interior design has been perfected over many generations. Eastern European countries, not just Russia have adopted the use of this style of stove. In some cases artisans get a hold of the materials to make beautiful centerpieces in the homes that will be heated during the winter.
Three types of brick are used: face brick, common brick, and fire brick. Face brick on the exterior is what a person will see upon looking at the stove. On the interior it takes in the heat produced by the stove and transfer it through the face brick. Face brick should be solid; red brick is sufficient. Common brick is used in the inner workings of the stove. It needs to be heavy, solid, and hard to ensure good heat transfer, retention, and release along its surface. Fire brick needs to be almost element proof because it is found in the hottest parts of the stove. Fire brick is placed in the top, bottom, and sides of the fire box, and also the inside of the first loop of flue. Fire brick are not prone to expansion and contraction which helps to minimize cracking under extreme heat conditions.
Other areas of the stove include the flue, air vent, doors, fire box liner, and the clean out. In the age of conservationism it is a wonder that more countries that find themselves in cold climates do not adopt this marvel. Another man who agrees with this is Samuel O' Clemens, or popularly referred to as Mark Twain.
Mark Twain on the Russian Stove, or the Kachelofen, and in this case the German Stove, which are all the same:
Take the German stove, for instance - where can you find it outside of German countries? I am sure I have never seen it where German was not the language of the region. Yet it is by long odds the best stove and the most convenient and economical that has yet been invented.
To the uninstructed stranger it promises nothing; but he will soon find that it is a masterly performer, for all that. It has a little bit of a door which you couldn't get your head in - a door which seems foolishly out of proportion to the rest of the edifice; yet the door is right, for it is not necessary that bulky fuel shall enter it. Small-sized fuel is used, and marvelously little of that. The door opens into a tiny cavern which would not hold more fuel than a baby could fetch in its arms. The process of firing is quick and simple. At half past seven on a cold morning the servant brings a small basketful of slender pine sticks - say a modified armful - and puts half of these in, lights them with a match, and closes the door. They burn out in ten or twelve minutes. He then puts in the rest and locks the door, and carries off the key. The work is done. He will not come again until next morning.
All day long and until past midnight all parts of the room will be delightfully warm and comfortable, and there will be no headaches and no sense of closeness or oppression. In an American room, whether heated by steam, hot water, or open fires, the neighborhood of the register or the fireplace is warmest - the heat is not equally diffused throughout the room; but in a German room one is comfortable in one part of it as in another. Nothing is gained or lost by being near the stove. Its surface is not hot; you can put your hand on it anywhere and not get burnt.
Consider these things. One firing is enough for the day; the cost is next to nothing; the heat produced is the same all day, instead of too hot and too cold by turns; one may absorb himself in his business in peace; he does not need to feel any anxieties of solicitudes about the fire; his whole day is a realized dream of bodily comfort.
America could adopt this stove, but does America do it? The American wood stove, of whatsoever breed, it is a terror. There can be no tranquility of mind where it is. It requires more attention than a baby. It has to be fed every little while, it has to be watched all the time; and for all reward you are roasted half your time and frozen the other half. It warms no part of the room but its own part; it breeds headaches and suffocation, and makes one's skin feel dry and feverish; and when your wood bill comes in you think you have been supporting a volcano.
We have in America many and many a breed of coal stoves, also - fiendish things, everyone of them. The base burners are heady and require but little attention; but none of them, of whatsoever kind, distributes its heat uniformly through the room, or keeps it at an unvarying temperature, or fails to take the life out of the atmosphere and leave it stuffy and smothery and stupefying...